Bitter Orange     

 Citrus aurantium var.amara (L) Link rutaceae


Seville Orange, Bigarade, neroli, Citrus vulgaris, Citrus Bigardia, Bigardier, Bitter Orange, (Sweet) Portugal Orange, Citrus dulcis, Common and official names derive from Sanskrit, nagaranja through to naranj (Arabic).Citrus sinensis is sweet orange.


First writing about these oranges is in Arabic. Largest plantations are found in the South of France,Calabria, and Sicily.

A full grown tree yields about 60 lbs of blossoms used for Oil of Neroli, which is used in Orange Flower Water and cologne like Evening in Paris.

Traditionally part of french patisserie, Orange flowers are symbolic of the wedding, introduced via France 170 years ago. Sweet Orange became known by the 15th century.

Wild herb or cultivar.

Neroli was discovered by Romans. In 1680 it was used by the Princess Neroli to scent bathwater and gloves. The princess made it fashionable for Italian aristocracy.

One ton of flowers yields 1kg of oil. Therapeutic oil is for sedative, antidepressant, anxiety, hysteria, shock, palpitaitons, insomnia, helpful for dermatitis, pre-menstrual tension and menopausal problems.


Oil of Neroli (flowers), volatile oil containing: limonene (to 90%-rind and fruit),Vitamin C,flavonoids,bitter compounds including naringine, aurantiamarin, three glucosides hesperidine,isohesperidine,a urantiamaric acid, resin.


Aperitif, anti-spasmodic, sedative, cholagogue, tonic, vermifuge, neroli Oil, neroli petalae, (from flowers is used in Vaseline as a leech preventive.)

Leaves and flowers

stomach sedative,constipation,orange flower water, flavouring in medicines, cuisine, confectionery, perfumery, conserves(marmalade) infusion of dried flowers used as mild nervous stimulant, syrup and elixir for wine,used as a vehicle for medicines, Oil of Petit Grain, made from the young shoots and leaves.

Small, immature fruits are clalled "orange Berries" and used for flavouring Curacoa ,Oil of Bigarade (peel) Oil of Portugal, Aromatherapy.

Fruit is useful in a preventive diet for Diabetes Mellitis


The compound wine is too dangerous used as an intoxicant, as it is mixed with absinthium, so it is recommended as a tonic.

weight control diet for diabetics,
and harmless Seville Orange

Citrus Aurantium.
Citrus aurantium is also known by its Chinese name, Zhi Shi , an herb with a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. It is more commonly known as bitter orange.

A standardized extract provides six percent amines and the most studied extract is known as Synephrine, which has thermogenic properties. The amines are similar in action to ephedrine (found in Ma Huang/Ephedra) in terms of thermogenesis*, but they do not cause the stimulant side effects associated with ephedrine or large amounts of caffeine such as nervousness, fast heart beat, high blood pressure, dry mouth, insomnia or even more serious side effects recently reported. That's because these active amines work through a different pathway than either caffeine or ephedrine. An effective dose of Citrus aurantium would be 975-1,000 mg and would be standardized to provide six percent of the active amines. " 

read the linked article (below) about burning off harmful fat to prevent the onset of diabetes.

the above quoted from:


The production of heat; specifically the physiologic process of heat production in the body .
Origin: thermo-+ G. Genesis, production


*Aromatherapy Notes: Pages 27 and 28, Essential Aromatherapy Carole McGilvery and Jim Reed, Acropolis Books

Bitter Orange: Page 175,The Encyclopaedia of Herbs and Herbalism, Malcolm Stuart

Citrus aurantium: Page 601 A Modern Herbal by Mrs M. Grieve


index ] text-only directory ] column ] herb directory ] moonphase] links] contact ] copyright] credits] dictionary ]

copyright Sue Risk, Northdays Image 2004 - 2015