Echinacea spp. compositae


Black Sampson. Coneflower. Niggerhead. Rudbeckia. Brauneria pallida (Nutt.).Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia


Named Echinacea by Linnaeus, and Rudbeckia, after Rudbeck, father and son, who were his predecessors at Upsala.


Oil and resin both in wood and bark ,masses of inulin, inuloid, sucrose, vulose, betaine, two phytosterols and fatty acids, oleic, cerotic, linolic and palmatic.

 Echinacoside, in E. angustifolia but not E. purpurea.

Research suggests that the echinacosides glycosides appear to be primary anti-microbial constituents in Echinacea. However there are many other biologically active substances present, and there is evidence that they work synergistically. The polysaccharides, for example, possess the best immune stimulating properties and are also antiviral. Unsaturated isobutyl amides, echinacin and others, in E. angustifolia and E. pallida.


a heteroxylan and an arabinorhamnogalactan


at least 13 of which have been isolated, ...found in dried but not fresh roots of E. pallida. Essential oil, containing humulene, caryophyllene and its epoxide, germacrene D and methyl-p-hydroxycinnamate

Miscellaneous constituents:

 vanillin linolenic acid derivatives, a labdane derivative, alkanes and flavonoids and the alkaloids tussilagine and isotussilagine.


 It has  useful properties as a strong alterative and aphrodisiac. As an injection, the extract has been used for haemorrhoids and a tincture of the fresh root has been found beneficial in diphtheria and putrid fevers.


Anti-microbial,( used for boils, erysipelas, septicaemia, cancer, syphilis and other impurities of the blood, its action being antiseptic)

 immunomodulator, anti-catarrhal, alterative.

infections of the upper respiratory tract such as laryngitis, tonsillitis and for catarrhal conditions of the nose and sinus.

The tincture or decoction may be used as a mouthwash in the treatment of pyorrhoea and gingivitis.

 It may be used as an external lotion to help septic sores and cuts.

Glycosides from the roots have mild activity against Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Echinacoside was the most active with about 6 mg being equivalent to one unit of penicillin.

The tincture was able to reduce both the rate of growth and the rate of reproduction of Trichomonas vaginalis, and was found to be effective in halting the recurrence of Candida albicans infection. It seems to prevent infection and repair tissue damaged by infection, partially through inhibiting the activity of the enzyme hyaluronidase.

tumor-inhibiting compound

Pharmacology and Studies  

Rolands Farm- a good resource page 


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