Cats Claw, 'Almost a Noble Herb'


Family: Rubiaceae

Genus: Uncaria

Species: tomentosa


anchored links to sections of cats claw page

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The herb medicine from the Cat's Claw vine, harvested in modern times, comes, specifically, from the inside of its' bark. Sanctions exist which demand an economy of use, since the use of mature Rainforest plants, root and all, might begin to wipe out the beneficial and almost exotic forest plants.
 The bark and roots have been used for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years in the rainforests of South America, by the native Ashanica Indians, for treatment of a wide variety of health problems associated with the immune and digestive systems.


Today, bark (which has all the medicinal properties) from the vine is typically the part used for medicinal purposes and the root is spared in order to avoid killing the plant, so protecting the Amazon Rainforest.


The vine became known as "Cat's Claw, because of opposing thorns, well-resembling the shaping of a cats's claw, grow from the stem at the base of the plant.

For a clear image of the thorn shape, link here, to:Picture of Claw-Like Thorn


Uncaria tomentosa is the plant which best offers medicinal virtues. This grows in the foothills, predominantly at altitudes of two to eight thousand feet.


"Copy Cats"


There are two other types of Cats Claw, one of which is a common "adulterant".
Uncaria guinanensis is a lowland species of Cat's Claw, more abundant in lower altitudes of the Peruvian rainforests.


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EPISTEMOLOGY


The mid-1960's


A European teacher, Arturo Brell, and U.S. University professor Eugene Whitworth, began to record the ethnic uses of Cats' Claw. Plant samples were collected,and the herbs' active constituents underwent initial screening.


In the early 1970's


Klaus Keplinger, journalist and self-taught ethnologist from Innsbruck, Austria.

Keplinger's work, through organizing the first definitive studies on Cat's Claw from the 1970's and 1980's led to several extracts of cat's claw being sold in Austria and Germany as prescription medicines, four U.S. patents describing the alkaloid extraction methods and the immunostimulating actions of these alkaloids found in Cat's Claw. His work inspired worldwide interest in the medicinal properties of N. tomentosa.


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1970s and 1980s:

'Keplinger's work had led to several extracts of cat's claw being sold in Austria and Germany as herbal drugs, as well as his filing of the four U.S. patents describing extraction procedures for the immune-stimulating oxindole alkaloids.
The oxindole alkaloids sparked worldwide interest in Rainforest plants and their medicinal capabilities.
A test tube study was funded by the manufacturer of an extract of Cats' Claw. This focussed upon the immune-stimulating alkaloids.

The research indicated that, supposedly, two different types (called chemotypes) of Cat's Claw vines are growing in the rainforest, and/or that cat's claw produces "good alkaloids" and "bad alkaloids."
It has coined the"good ones" pentacyclic (POA) alkaloids and the "bad ones"tetracyclic (TOA) alkaloids; both are oxindole alkaloids.

The research and marketing attempted to suggest that one set of "bad alkaloids" counteracts the immune benefits of the "good alkaloids." This research has not been confirmed by independent researchers - they are not vendors or producers.
This research has also not been confirmed in humans or animals.

Market-driven research, at this point, would seek to discount or disprove all the definitive, independent research done over the last three decades in Japan, Peru, Germany, Spain, and the United States (including the four U.S. patents filed by these same researchers)'.

quinovic acid glycosides: Research into the herbs' use as an Anti-inflammatory validated its ethnic and historic use for arthritis and rheumatism, as well as for some kinds of inflammation of the stomach, or bowel disorders.
potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis, factor (TNF) alpha: The production report says that this is due to its carboxyl alkyl esters.


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In addition to the immunostimulant alkaloids, Cat's Claw contains the alkaloids: rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and mitraphylline, which have demonstrated hypotensive and vasodilating properties.
Rhynchophylline has shown to prevent blood clots in blood vessels, dilate peripheral blood vessels, lower the heart rate, and lower blood levels of cholesterol.



Newer Research-Alzheimers

Possibilities

Alzheimers


"Cat's claw might be helpful to people with Alzheimer's disease; this could be attributed to established antioxidant effects, or, possibly, to the dilation of peripheral blood vessels in the brain by alkaloids such as rhynchophylline. depression/obesity/anxiety: recently reported that cat's claw's immune-stimulating alkaloids pteropodine and isopteropodine might have other properties and applications. They reported that these two chemicals have shown to have a positive modulating effect on brain neurotransmitters called 5-HT(2) receptors. These receptor sites are targets for drugs used in treating a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, chronic pain conditions, and obesity."


Properties/Actions Documented by Research:


anti-inflammatory, antiulcerous, anticancerous, antidepressant, antileukemic, antimutagenic (cellular protector), antioxidant, antitumorous, antiviral, contraceptive, immune stimulant


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1984 to 1988 - Cancer


The Most Potent Variety

Traditions and Studies

Peruvian physicians, who studied variens of Cat's Claw verified that Uncaria tomentosa was the potent, or useful medicinal herb of the several types. U. tomentosa has glabrous, dark, shiny lanceolate leaves, with small "button-bush" type flowers, composed of hundreds of fine, white florets in a tiny round ball, set upon a short stem, which stands out away from the leaves.


Studies had been conducted at research facilities in Peru, Austria, Germany, England, Hungary and Italy:
These scientists made suggestions that the herb had promise for the benefit of many types of illness,listed to the right:

1988


International congress on traditional medicines in Lima, Peru.
Uncaria tomentosa and other herbs were reported to treat 14 types of accurately diagnosed cancer in 700 patients between 1984 and 1988.
Dr. Satya Ambros, co-founder of the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine: In just a few months of working with the bark of Uncaria tomentosa in capsule form,this Doctor found there were excellent results in the treatment of Crohn's disease, ulcers, fibromyalgia and asthma.

Newer Confirmations

treatment of cancer, arthritis, bursitis, allergies, ulcers, systematic candidiasis, diabetes, lupus, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Premenstrual syndrome, irregularities of the female cycle, numerous bowel and intestinal disorders, and organic depression, depurative3



further, link to: Immune Support News

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1988


An excellent article in Immune Support News, by Philip Steinberg, describes Dr. Brent Davis' experiences."

Digestion and Research


Dr. Davis called Uncaria tomentosa "the opener of the way", because of its remarkable ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract and help patients suffering from many different stomach and bowel disorders.
Doctor Davis has also called Uncaria tomentosa a "world-class" herb.

The disorders include:

Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, leaky bowel syndrome, colitis, hemorrhoids, fistulas, gastritis, ulcers, parasites and dysbiosis (intestinal flora imbalance)


Re: Leaky Gut Syndrome

(References: Steinberg, Phillip N., C.N.C., "Uncaria Tomentosa (Cat's Claw) a Wondrous Herb from the Peruvian Rain Forest," Townsend Letter for Doctors, May, 1994.and Sanchez, Don, D.C., "Cat's Claw," New Editions Health World, Dec., 1995, p.40-45. )



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July of 1999 and July of 1990, re:

A Breakthrough for Varicella Zoster Treatment

nb: Click "Breakthrough", above to link to a page about more herbs for Zoster (shingles)


About phagocytosis1:


Klaus Keplinger obtained two more United States patents for isolating some of the herb's major components.


In these patents, laboratory testing provides proof of a pronounced enhancement effect on phagocytosis (the ability of the white blood cells and macrophages to attack, engulf and digest harmful microorganisms, foreign matter and debris).
These are four alkaloids: isopteropodine, pteropodine, isomitraphylline and isorynchophylline.

Rynchophylline, a fifth alkaloid also found in Uncaria tomentosa and another Uncaria species native to the Far East, has been studied at the Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine. This alkaloid has been shown in laboratory testing to display an ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis.



historic:



5/7 patients lose Genital Herpes zoster:

On November 28, 1988 and June 17, 1993, articles about Uncaria tomentosa appeared in El Comercia, the major metropolitan newspaper in Lima, Peru. The first article stated that Uncaria tomentosa had been proven effective in the treatment of allergies and neurobronchitis. The article defined Dr. Keplinger's success in using Uncaria tomentosa to treat genital herpes zoster. According to the article, he was not able to help two of these patients. However, the well-being of the other five improved to such an extent that their symptoms disappeared.
1989 Dr Richard Gerber, Cats Claw Quarterly:

"....European research has found that the herb has very low toxicity even in large amounts. It may be especially beneficial for individuals with painful joints who cannot take conventional radiation and chemotherapy to minimize nausea and other side effects associated with cancer treatments."

Reprinted with permission from Philip Steinberg.


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May 1994


Great Advances - AIDS (1)


World Health Organization



W.H.O. provided sponsorship for the First International Conference on Cat's Claw in Geneva, Switzerland.


"Studies indicated at least six of these oxindole alkaloids can increase immune function by up to 50% in relatively small amounts.This has led to its use around the world as an adjunctive treatment for cancer and AIDS as well as other diseases which negatively impact the immunological system."

Link to: Dr. Taylors Book, Rain-tree.com

See,also Personal Website of Naturopath,Dr. Leslie Taylor, author of Raintree.com-Such a fun, warm site!

NB:     The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

Dr. Leslie Taylor, ND Raintree Nutrition, Inc. 3579 Hwy 50 East, Suite 222 Carson City, NV 89701 (775) 841-4142 or (800) 780-5902 http://www.rain-tree.com


Rhynchophylline


cancer, AIDS, inhibits platelet aggregation, inhibits thrombosis, may relax the blood vessels of endothelial cells, dilation of peripheral blood vessels, may help to prevent blood clots in blood vessels, lower heart rate, lower blood cholesterol

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1970s to 2000

Zoster and Candidiasis


Keplingers' Patients

Beginning in the 1970s and continuing through today, studies conducted at research facilities in Peru, Austria, Germany, England, Hungary, and Italy suggest that Uncaria tomentosa may be beneficial in the treatment of cancer, arthritis, bursitis, rheumatism, genital herpes and herpes zoster, allergies, ulcers, systematic candidiasis, diabetes, lupus, chronic fatigue syndrome, PMS, and irregularities of the female cycle, environmental toxic poisoning, numerous bowel and intestinal disorders, organic depression, and those infected with the HIV virus.

Immune stimulant


In July 1989, U.S. Patent No. 4,844,901 was issued to an Austrian scientist named Dr. Klause Keplinger, and a second patent, No. 4,940,725, was issued to him in July 1990. These patents explain how Dr. Keplinger isolated six oxindole alkaloids from the root of Uncaria tomentosa and that four of these alkaloids have been proven to be "suitable for the unspecific stimulation of the immunologic system." According to Keplinger's research, these four alkaloids have been shown to have a pronounced enhancement effect on phagocytosis (the ability of the white blood cells and macrophage to attack, engulf and digest harmful micro-organisms, foreign matter, and debris).

aids, genital herpes, zoster

On both November 28, 1988, and June 17, 1993, articles about Immodel, a laboratory in Austria, appeared in El Comercio, the major metropolitan newspaper in Lima, Peru. Dr. Keplinger, the director of Immodel, had developed a pharmaceutical called "Krallendorn" from an extract of the root of Uncaria tomentosa. The articles speak of Dr. Keplinger's success in the treatment of allergies, neurobronchitis, genital herpes, and herpes zoster. This news edition also reported his success in treating AIDS and cancer!

Dr. Keplinger, by 1988, had been able to reverse the progression of both AIDS and cancer in the majority of his patients by using Krallendorn alone, or in combination with AZT. He has also determined that Krallendorn has been effective in reducing the unpleasant side effects of both AZT and radiation therapy when used in the treatment of cancer.

(quotation)..Since that time, I, along with some of my friends and associates, have been using the tea and herb in capsule form. We have found them both to be equally effective in knocking out the flu, clearing up sinus and ear infections, canker sores, one infection associated with TMJ (temporomandibular joint syndrome), and eliminating the tired sore muscles associated with heavy physical work and exercise.

I was even able to clear up a case of athlete's foot by putting the powdered herb between the infected toes, and my daughter's conjunctivitis by putting drops of the tea in her eyes several times over the course of two days. Even more amazing is the fact that all of the above were accomplished within 48 hours after beginning use of Uncaria tomentosa.

According to my experience and the available research, three to six grams daily is considered therapeutic if using capsules or three to four strong cups per day if using tea. However, as much as 20 grams per day might be used in very advanced stages of pathology.

In children under 12, one capsule three times daily seems to be effective on minor ailments, and the same dose is good for adults as a preventative measure.. (end quote)


Phillip N. Steinberg is a graduate of The Nutritionist Institute of America and has been an owner/operator of several health and natural product stores.
At present, Mr. Steinberg is working as a writer dealing with topics pertaining to nutrition and holistic health.

This Article originally appeared in The Herb Quarterly as well as articles on Essiac , the Hoxsey Clinic, Milk Thistle seed and others. To subscribe call or write: The Herb Quarterly, PO Box 689 San Anselmo, CA 94979-0689 or call 1-800-371-HERB (4372)

testimonial of Phillip N. Steinberg,Copyright 1994 by The Herb Quarterly. All rights reserved.

Correspondence:
Philip Steinberg,
PO Box 1701,
Georgetown, CO 80444


the above quotation is from a Cats Claw Article, linked here.


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LINKS
Fitness


Kleplinger: "According to the patent, four alkaloids have been proven "suitable for the unspecific stimulation of the immune system..."
Again, according to the patent, the most immunologically active alkaloid is isopteropodin.
"...It has been heard many times that doctors today believe uŮa de gato may have a profound ability to get rid of deep-seated infection lodged in the bowel and perhaps even in the mesentery2, which can derange the uterus and associated anatomic parts: the prostate, the liver, the spleen, the kidneys, the thymus and the thyroid - for starters."

quotation by Dr. Keplinger, the director.

LINK HERE, TO 'ONLINE FITNESS TRAINER': a full plaintext page about Cats Claw.


You'll LOVE this site!

Health tips for the Marine Corps worth enjoying / not to be missed!



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A Clear Guide


Cat's claw. This herb has become very popular and is definitely worth discussing. Most of the information provided comes from the "ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs" by Mark Blumenthal.

THE INFORMATION BELOW IS A PARTIAL SUMMARY OF CATS CLAW DISCOVERIES

Catís Claw may help to prevent Atherosclerosis (due to the Rynchophylline content of Catís Claw inhibiting the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque that occurs during the progression of Atherosclerosis). Catís Claw may inhibit abnormal Blood Clotting (due to Rynchophylline inhibiting platelet aggregation).
Also -


Some types of Skin Cancer(some physicians have observed decreases in the visible size of some Skin Cancers).

Entamoeba histolytica:(especially when used in conjunction with Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)-it may facilitate the expulsion of Entamoeba histolytica (a type of Detrimenal Protozoa) from the body (according to anecdotal reports).

Cats'Claw is believed to counteract the toxic side effects of Zidovudine (AZT) which is taken by AIDS patients - and to inhibit the onset of opportunistic infections* in AIDS patients.

Allergies-may alleviate symptoms.

reduction of inflammation (due to its Antioxidant effects and due to its ability to inhibit Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha); Catís Claw may alleviate Lupus Erythematosus.

helper T Cells: stimulates the bodyís production (due to Oxindole Alkaloids).

Catís Claw may activate Macrophages.

constituents of Catís Claw possess Antioxidant properties.

may alleviate Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Alzheimerís Disease - "Cats Claw may be useful,a claim made on the basis that Catís Claw has been demonstrated to retard the deposition of Amyloid-Beta Protein."

Catís Claw may stimulate the production of Interleukin 1


Re: Tobacco Use: may help to minimize the toxic effects of Tobacco smoking

may reduce the mutagenicity of substances present in the Urine of Tobacco smokers.



Link to, and read the best organized account of developments in Cats' Claw Concepts.


Copyright © Rana Pty. Ltd. 2004

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WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES link to:Experiences of a European Manufacturer of Cat's Claw Products

Re: Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster



"Infections with Herpex Simplex and Varicella Zoster :synopsis- 16 of the 20 patients suffering from Varicella zoster were treated with a lower dose 1 x day of Cat's Claw extract, while 4 patients were given a much higher dose, at two-hourly intervals. All of the patients in the group of 16, except for one patient, were subjectively free of symptoms 7 days after beginning treatment."

includes other Doctors observations

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Recent Cats Claw Research: Psoriasis

Re: Psoriasis:

HRQL


"Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) is an evaluation of the influences of a patientís current health status, and on their ability to achieve and maintain a level of overall functioning that allows them to pursue valued life goals. The HRQL assesses eight domains of health status: physical functioning, role functioning related to physical status, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role functioning related to emotional status, and mental health."

"Patients with psoriasis reported reduction in physical functioning and mental functioning comparable to that seen in cancer, arthritis, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and depression. Some aspects closely associated with a negative impact on the physical dimension of HRQL include burning sensations, joint pain, and how the bones/joints look. "Scales falling off" was predictive of higher physical functioning, indicating that patients who report better physical functioning tend to be bothered more by scales falling off."

Link re: Psoriasis(Shirleys' Wellness Cafe)

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read more



Cats Claw: Menopause, Andropause, Diabetes, and Hormone-Regulation, Articles by Donna Schwontkowski

  1. 1.women: Una de gato's long history of use for treatment of irregularities of the female cycle and other conditions is well-known in Peru.
  2. 2.men: Amazon herbs offer a risk-free, side effect-free option, to individuals with these disorders.

Dr. Donna Schwontkowski obtained her doctorate degree in chiropractic medicine from National College of Chiropractic in Lombard, Illinois simultaneously with a Masters' Degree in Nutrition from Northern Illinois University in 1990. Her long-standing interest in natural healing therapies and extensive experience in the field of nutrition prompted a research project in 1991 on the effects of an Amazonian herbal combination on weight loss in adults. She continues to research the Rainforest herbs and is currently on a nationwide radio circuit to educate people on how they may benefit from the use of these herbs. Her chiropractic practice emphasizes the natural healing treasures from the Amazon Rainforest. She has written a book called Herbs from the Amazon: Traditional and Common Uses.


Herbal Treasures from the Amazon/ Part 2: Male and Female Hormone Regulation Herbs by Dr. Donna Schwontkowski

Raintree.com Diabetes, blood-sugar: Donnas papers 1 and 2

Menopause and Andropause (by Donna Schwontkowski)


Raintrees' other references:


Cats Claw

Cats Claw (re: zoster page and others)

cats claw /una de gato at All-Natural.com

Essiac Formulations Native Essenseô. (Essiac with Cats Claw)

    Cat's Claw/Astragalus/Reishi

    Cat's Claw/Pau d' Arco Plus

    Devil's Claw/Cat's Claw Plus

    Immun-Essence Plus

    Venus Flytrap/Cats Claw


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    Miracle Herb!: Link, and read a plea, made by a Rainforest Native

    Rainforest Law: an excerpt

    "The best way to get Cats Claw to the U.S.A is for visiting friends to bring it back with them (there are no customs restrictions on bringing back rainforest medicines as long as they are completly dry) Once in the U.S.A it is easy to distribute the medicine to interested recipients via U.S. mail. e-mail us at the above address with your request giving your name and shipping address and we will send you your cats claw Cat's Claw has been called by experts as a "World Class Herb," a "Miracle Herb" and a "Sacred Herb of the Rainforest."

    It is important to note, there is another Uncaria species that grows in the highlands of the Amazon known as Uncaria guianensis. This herb is also called Una de Gato and Cats Claw, however it does not contain the most important alkaloid, Isopteropodine. It is therefore important to be aware of products being marketed as "Cats Claw" or "Una de Gato." miracles: this site, from the Amazon, asks for donations.


    "Cats Claw is ecologically harvested by indigenous people to protect natural resources of the rainforest and it's people. Only the alkaloid-rich inner bark is utilized. The alkaloids and phytochemicals in the inner bark are almost identical to those found in the root of Cat's Claw and harvesting this way preserves the plant and provides for the future of the rainforest.

    We do not endorse harvesting Cat's Claw root and endangering our future supply of this important plant. Providing education and a new income source derived from harvesting sustainable natural resources, helps provide an alternative to destroying this valuable resource."

    In 1991 there was a new study to isolate the chemical compounds found naturally within the plant that would be responsible for anti-inflammatory principles. This led to "the isolation and characterization of a new quinovic acid glycoside called glycoside 7 as one of the most active anti-inflammatory principles to be uncovered.


    Uncaria guianensis is frequently confused with Uncaria tomentosa therefore consumers should check the Cat's Claw bottles they buy for "Uncaria tomentosa" and choose from a reputable company.

    Will any old bark do? No. The effective part of the plant is the inner bark. There has been a lot of controversy over outer bark being sold as inner, or a mix. Sometimes the root is used but only under certain permits. It is believed that uncaria tomentosa is the most effective of species. Shop carefully and do not be afraid to ask the company about the quality.

    The current practice of harvesting Uncaria tomentosa involves chopping the vine approximately three feet above the ground and leaving the root undisturbed. The inner bark is then removed and sold. With this practice, the vine can regrow, reach maturity, and be harvested again in approximately 4 years.

    Catís Claw is the tender inner bark of the plant, not of the root. (Harvesting the root kills the plant and is prohibited by Peruvian authorities).
    Catís Claw can be authenticated by laboratory analysis to prove it is Uncaria tomentosa and not some other inactive Uncaria species. The high quality of Uncaria tomentosa guarantees the complete satisfaction and benefit."


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    More on Krallendorn

    text ref: "Herbs Against Cancer, History and Controversy" by Ralph W. Moss Ph.D., much on Cats Claw.

    Researchers determined the activity of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa in five extracts and six fractions from a chloroform/methanol extract both in vitro and in vivo 5. The plant extracts showed a protective antimutagenic effect in an in vitro test with strains of Salmonella tymphimurium. In the in vivo study, a decoction of Uncaria tomentosa ingested daily for 15 days by a smoker decreased the mutagenicity induced in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 by the subjectís urine

    mail:Fundaciůn Wanduk YachŠi

    In addition to its immunostimulating activity, in vitro anticancerous properties have been documented for these alkaloids and other constituents in cat's claw. Five of the oxindole alkaloids have been clinically documented with in vitro antileukemic properties, and various root and bark extracts have demonstrated antitumorous and anticancerous properties.


    directly inhibited (in study) human breast cancer cells, leukemia cells---ameliorates iatrogenetic symptoms of chemo---assists in DNA cellular repair


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    AIDS and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE


    AIDS STUDIES


    New Studies from The University of Maryland:
      

    CATS CLAW: "extends immunity from pneumonia vaccine in HIV patients as an adjunctive to antiretroviral therapy, stabilizes and/or reduces CD4-cell count, increases vitality an d mobility, and reduces HIV-related symptoms"

    externally, active against Herpes simplex and Varicella-zoster


    "In a study in Uganda, 154 patients with HIV who received individualized herbal treatments for shingles...."

    HIV and AIDS / also Zoster Info, Read On...

    Alternative Herbs

    "Another area that is being studied currently at Oregon Health Sciences University is the use of cat's claw for Alzheimer's disease; no information is available yet to indicate if the herb is helpful or harmful for this condition"

    HIV and AIDS / also Zoster Info


    link to:AIDS alternatives treatment page:

    Copyright © 2002 A.D.A.M., Inc



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    VETERINARY USE   



    In Peruvian medicine, Cat's Claw is even being used in veterinary practices today with benefits in dogs and cats with hip dysplasia, arthritis, cancers, Parvo virus, dermatitis and other skin disorders, tumors, FIV, and feline leukemia.

    Cats Claw for Cats and Dogs!



    Pix, Magick, Library


    Magickal Cats' Claw Page

    pictures of cats-claw harvest


    Pictures of Uncaria tomentosa


    Librarians Choice Search on Latin American Topics

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    Definitions


    3depurative
    Purifying the blood or the humors; depuratory. A depurative remedy or agent; or a disease which is believed to be depurative.
    Origin: Cf. F. Depuratif. Source: Websters Dictionary (01 Mar 1998)

    2mesentery

    Def. 1:
    The membranes, or one of the membranes (consisting of a fold of the peritoneum and inclosed tissues), which connect the intestines and their appendages with the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity. The mesentery proper is connected with the jejunum and ilium, the other mesenteries being called mesoccum, mesocolon, mesorectum, etc. Origin: Gr, + intestine: cf. F. Mesentere. Source: Websters Dictionary (01 Mar 1998)

    1phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of particulate material, such as microorganisms or cell fragments. The material is taken into the cell in membrane bound vesicles (phagosomes) that originate as pinched off invaginations of the plasma membrane. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes, forming phagolysosomes in which the engulfed material is killed and digested. Origin: L. Phagedaena, Gr Phago, To eat.

    phagocyte
    A cell that is capable of phagocytosis. The main mammalian phagocytes are neutrophils and macrophages. Origin: L. Phagedaena, Gr Phago, To eat.

    phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction
    Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterised by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
    phagocyte dysfunction
    Disorder in which the ability of the phagocyte to engulf and ingest particles may be impaired. (05 Mar 2000)

    phagocyte dysfunction
    Disorder in which the ability of the phagocyte to engulf and ingest particles may be impaired.

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